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Application in the determination of chemical resistance

To measure the chemical impedance at complex frequencies, a frequency response analyzer, known as the digital version of the lock-in amplifier, is used to make the frequency sweep easier to use.

Chemical changes such as plating or corrosion cannot be quantitatively determined by surface observation. A small amount of current flows through the sample, measuring its impedance, which is called chemical resistance.

The chemical impedance is determined by placing two electrodes (a working electrode and a counter electrode) in the electrolyte. In order to detect the solution near the working electrode voltage, a reference electrode is used.